The Bible’s description pinpoints the general location of this garden, which is the place of the origin of humanity. According to the chronology of the Old Testament, which rounds off years, often not specifying the month and days of the age of people in genealogies, the Garden of Eden was created around 4300+ BC by God Himself. The only 2 people who lived in the Garden of Eden were Adam and Eve. CLUE #1: THE GARDEN OF EDEN IS EASTWARD OF WHERE GENESIS WAS WRITTEN: ”The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden”. In order to properly interpret the Bible we must read it from the perspective of the human authors, knowing that God Himself was inspiring them to write down His Word. So to the author of Genesis 2 who was writing down the Biblical narrative, it was Eastward of where the sojourn in the Wilderness and in general Israel was located. So we know that it was East of where the people of Israel first read this scripture. CLUE #2: THE GARDEN OF EDEN WAS DOWNSTREAM FROM THE PISHON RIVER: The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which skirts the whole land of Havilah. The first clue is the Pishon River, first proposed by Dr. Juris Zarins, American Archaeologist, which is no longer an active river, but an ancient dry riverbed. He proposed Wadi al-Batin and flows in a Northeasterly direction and at one time emptied into the Persian Gulf. About 3 times every 100 years the Wadi flows again due to flash flooding (Although in 1987 and 2008 this Wadi al-Rummah flooded for a total of 17 days). The source of the Wadi al-Batin and the longer connecting Wadi al Rummah is near the city of Medina and goes all the 1,200 km. journey to the Persian Gulf. In ancient times it was a major waterway which has since dried up. The Pishon River would skirt the land of Havilah and thus would form its Western border. Havilah is most likely the area East of Wadi al-Rummah, from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Pishon (Wadi al-Rummah which is now desertified) Ancient Havilah (In Modern-day Saudi Arabia) 6-10 km beneath Ghawar Oil Field, Saudi Arabia. Google Earth Coordinates: 25° 25′ 48″ N, 49° 37′ 12″ E CLUE #3: GOLD IS IN THE LAND OF HAVILAH: Then the Bible mentions gold. ”The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which skirts the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. “ The Mahd adh Dhahab Gold Mine, also known as the “Cradle of Gold”, is the leading gold mining area in the Arabian Peninsula. It is located about 160 Km E. of Medina. Gold was mined here for millennia then rediscovered in 1931, when an American named Kenneth Twitchell, prospected Mahd adh Dhahab. His company, the Saudi Arabia Mining Syndicate, recovered some 60 tons of gold from the site. The site contains evidence that it was extensively used as a mine for millennia as explorers discovered thousands of stone hammers at the site and vast quantities of rock that had been processed. This was an ancient mine that was in operation during the time of Solomon around 1000 BC and it may have been the famous King Solomon’s Gold mine. Its total yield of gold is an estimated 100 tons. This gold mine would have been in the land of Havilah as the Bible says.
CLUE #4: BDELLIUM IS IN THE LAND OF HAVILAH: “Bdellium and the onyx stone are there”. Bdellium is a sticky resin that comes from the Commiphora wightii plant, a thorny shrub which prefers to live in arid, and semi-arid conditions. Another name for the plant is the Guggul plant. According to Dr. Jacob Thomas, of the Department of Botany and Microbiology at the King Saud University in Riyadh, this flowering plant species is native to and has been found in the past in the territory of Oman and reportedly (although not confirmed) in UAE, East of Wadi al-Batin. CLUE #5: ONYX STONE IS IN THE LAND OF HAVILAH: “Bdellium and the onyx stone are there”. Interestingly Saudi Arabia also has onyx stone which is greenish in colour and very beautiful. Slabs of onyx from Saudi Arabia can be purchased and are displayed around the world. To the right is a beautiful sample of Saudi Arabian onyx for sale. The Mahd adh Dhahab Gold Mine Commiphora wightii Commiphora plant species with Bdellium Resin CLUE #6: THE GARDEN OF EDEN IS DOWNSTREAM FROM THE GISHON RIVER: “The name of the second river is Gihon; it is the one which goes around the whole land of Cush.” The second river, the Gihon, is a challenge because the Bible says that it goes through the land of Cush. In the rest of scripture, Cush has referred to the area of Northeast Africa, Ethiopia. However, this River that goes through Ethiopia (the Blue Nile) is nowhere near the drainage basin of the other rivers. It cannot be that river. However, the Karun River is a river that flows for about 720 km zigzagging through the Zard Kuh Mountains of Iran. The reason that this could be the river spoken about in Genesis is that Cush gave birth to the famous Nimrod who built Babel in Mesopotamia and also possibly Nineveh in Assyria. In Micah 5:6 we read: “And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders.” Here we see that the land of Nimrod is associated with this area, the same Nimrod who was the son of Cush. Could it be that this would also be called the land of Cush as well as Ethiopia? According to Dr. Juris Zarins, these 4 Rivers: Euphrates, Tigris, Pishon and Gihon (Karun) Rivers fit the Biblical account very well and thus the Garden of Eden was situated at the head of the Persian Gulf where the 4 rivers met. However, the Bible says that the River went out of Eden to water the Garden, so in the Garden of Eden it was one River, then it parted and was 4 riverheads. So the Garden of Eden could not be at the exact place where the Rivers met, say in Kuwait or near the mouth of the river where it flows into the Persian Gulf, but rather downstream from there. CLUE #7: EDEN WAS AT ONE TIME IN A DEPRESSED, WELL WATERED PART OF THE EARTH: In Genesis 13 we read of how Lot, the nephew of Abraham, looked towards the plain of the Jordan Valley and this was compared to the Garden of Eden. And Lot lifted his eyes and saw all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere (before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah) like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt as you go toward Zoar. Gen. 13:10. The Jordan River flowed south into the Dead Sea and before Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed this area was amazingly fertile like the Nile River area. Graves discovered in this area show a vast array of fruits and produce – it was indeed a fertile area at one point. Interestingly the Dead Sea is the lowest point on earth in terms of altitude. The Garden of Eden was similar in this respect – it was likely in a depressed, well watered part of the ancient pre-flood world. The Karun River, North of Persian Gulf, Iran CLUE #8: EDEN IS NOW UNDERGROUND IN “THE DEPTHS” OF THE EARTH: What happened to the Garden of Eden? This is what the Bible says in Ezekiel 31:16: “I made the nations shake at the sound of its fall, when I cast it down to hell together with those who descend into the Pit; and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, were comforted in the depths of the earth.” Ezekiel 31:16 [NKJV]. The Bible tells us that God sent the flood to the earth and completely destroyed not only the living things on earth, but also destroyed the original landscape, depositing countless cubic kilometres of sediment all over the earth. The flood would have covered over the Garden of Eden with sediment and buried it. So Genesis 2 gives the general location of the Garden of Eden and Ezekiel 31 tells us that it is underground. Now we need to look underneath the earth to find the most likely location of the Garden of Eden. CLUE #9: THE LAND OF DILMUN IS NEAR THE GARDEN OF EDEN: The ancient book called “The Epic of Gilgamesh”, a poem written about Gilgamesh the King of Uruk, from the Sumerian civilization, was written between 2100 BC – 1200 BC. It gives the account and quest of Gilgamesh, who is most likely a real person who ruled as King of Uruk, Mesopotamia, between 2800 BC – 2500 BC. In the story Gilgamesh travels to the land of Dilmun, which is described as the place of Creation. “So Gilgamesh travelled over the wilderness, he wandered over the grasslands, a long journey, in search of Utnapishtim, whom the gods took after the deluge; and they set him to live in the land of Dilmun, in the garden of the sun; and to him alone of men they gave everlasting life.” The Sumerians believed that Dilmun was the place of the creation of the world’s first man and woman. The Bible records that Noah lived another 350 years after the flood and died at the age of 950 years old. According to the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim or Noah, lived in Dilmun and spoke at length with Gilgamesh. Noah would have been the oldest man alive from the flood (around 3000 BC – 2650 BC) and would have been the wisest of elders on earth. It would make sense for Gilgamesh to consult him. As well, since he was an old man, it would make sense that he wanted to live in a warm climate which would be much warmer than where the ark had landed and perhaps God revealed to him that it was near the Garden of Eden’s location. Austrian Archaeologist Eduard Glaser travelled extensively throughout Southern Arabia and Yemen and studied the language of the Sabeans. In 1922, Glaser proposed that the Garden of Eden was located in Eastern Arabia near the Dilmun civilization. Using the Biblical narrative and piecing together its’ geographical, geological and botanical clues, historical clues and scientific clues we can deduce that the most likely place on Earth for the location of the Garden of Eden is in this area. Ruins of the Dilmun Civilization, Bahrain Eduard Glaser (1855-1908) The Garden of Eden was completely covered over by sediment CLUE #10: DILMUN BURIAL MOUNDS IN BAHRAIN: The Island country of Bahrain was the capital of the Dilmun Civilization. On the Island there are approximately 350,000 burial mounds all across Bahrain. After studying the interior of the burial mounds, archaeologists concluded that the average age of the deceased was 40 years old, of both sexes, and there were approximately 1.6 children per family. The dead were buried lying on their right side. There was some belief that attracted people to be buried in Dilmun, the place of Creation. In Dilmun, according to ancient beliefs, the “god” Ea (of Enki) and his wife Ninhursag, were placed there to institute a “sinless age of complete happiness”. This is very similar to the Adam and Eve Biblical account. If people believed that Dilmun was Paradise on Earth, then it would make sense that thousands of people would want to be buried within this piece of real estate, close to Paradise where Adam and Eve once lived. CLUE #11: MOST OF EARTH’S OIL IS BENEATH THE GROUND IN THE PERSIAN GULF AREA: Although the nations around the Persian Gulf are only 3.1% of the world’s land area, this area holds over 65% of the world’s oil resources! Oil was first discovered in 1857, yet God knew all along that Eden’s vast reserves were held beneath the earth. How amazing that the Bible pointed to this area as being the cradle of creation and where Eden and the Garden of Eden was located even though the ancient people had no idea about the existence of subterranean vast oil reserves. This seems far too unlikely to be coincidental. In the image below oil fields are represented in black and gas fields in red. Burial Mounds of the Ancient Dilmun Civilization, Bahrain CLUE #12: THE GHAWAR OIL FIELD FITS THE BIBLICAL GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION WELL: The world’s largest oil field is the Ghawar Oil Field in Saudi Arabia. It is long and narrow, similar to the structure of the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea area. It is a gully, 30 Km wide and 280 km long, with hills on both sides. It was in a low-lying area during ancient geologic periods. As well, there is one more interesting geographic feature that scripture gives. It is found in Ezekiel 28:12-14: ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: “‘You were the seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. You were in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone adorned you: carnelian, chrysolite and emerald, topaz, onyx and jasper, lapis lazuli, turquoise and beryl. Your settings and mountings were made of gold; on the day you were created they were prepared. You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. You were on the holy mount of God; you walked among the fiery stones. Perhaps the holy mount of God was the Ghawar anticline, which is on the left side of the oval structure in the illustration below of a cross section. You can see that it would rise about 1000 m above the forest floor at one time. In addition, there was a conduit during each of the geologic time periods which would have allowed water to flow down from it, as the Bible says, the River flowed out of the Garden of Eden. This is why the Ghawar Oil field best matches the site of the Biblical Garden of Eden.
Around 2500 BC, according to tradition, the Yellow Emperor commissioned Canggie to invent the Chinese language. This language was composed of pictures, which conveyed things and ideas. The interesting thing is that the understanding of the inventor of the Chinese language became permanently fixed in the Chinese characters. In the 1920s, C.H. Kang and Dr. Ethel R. Nelson discovered that many of the Chinese characters which were made of pictures were actually confirming the account in Genesis about the creation of Adam and Eve, the fall, Cain and Abel and the Tower of Babel. They wrote a book explaining that the early Chinese civilization worshipped one God, Shang Di, who was a God who could not be worshipped with idols. This God also required sacrifice of a lamb or ox to atone for sin. Recently, Pastor Kong Hee of City Harvest Church, Singapore, gave an excellent lecture in his church about God in Ancient China. This are a few of their findings which are also available on YouTube under “God in Ancient China”.
This is the Sumerian Temptation Seal dating to 2100 BC which depicts a man and a woman seated with a tree and a serpent. It is a chlorite rolling seal and reminds us of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.
In the year 1932, while excavating on the Tepe Gawra Mound, Dr. Ephraim A. Speiser of the University Museum of Pennsylvania discovered a very small stone seal. The seal, found showed a naked man and woman walking as if downcast and broken hearted. A snake was in the upper left behind the man and woman. The seal was dated to 3500 BC. The Tepe Gawra tell is very old and in it are several layers representing eras of settlement. Dr. Speiser believed that the seal found was “strongly suggestive” of the Biblical account of Adam and Eve. The seal is now at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
This is the best candidate for Noah’s Ark. This 515 foot man-made structure matches the 300 cubit Biblical dimensions. Petrified wood and metal rivets with underground beams going longitudinally and laterally have been found on the fossilized boat-shaped object that was covered by lava and mud in an ancient flow which miraculously preserved it. The late Turkish archaeologist Dr. Ekrem Akurgal and government officials in the Province of Agri believed that it was a man-made boat and none other than the famous ship as in 1986 the government set up a visitors centre nearby to inform pilgrims who visit the site.